The PEI Declaration is a civil society declaration created on the occasion of the 6th Global Forum for Health Promotion in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. This document evolved during the Forum proceedings on October 16-17, 2016, via contributions from delegates in attendance and those submitting feedback via social media and our website. 

The PEI Declaration will be submitted to the World Health Organization in advance of the 9th Global Conference on Health Promotion in Shanghai, China, in November 2016. 

The Poster PresentationHarnessing Civic Engagement – Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through Social Mobilization and Health Promotion Leadership” is available to view & download here.

Voir la version finale de la Déclaration Î-P-É en français en cliquant ici.


PEI Health Promotion Declaration – October 2016

Charlottetown Call for Action:
Health Promotion for Sustainable Development

 

FINAL VERSION – Updated October 17, 2016

We, participants in the 6th Global Forum on Health Promotion held in Charlottetown, PEI, Canada, make the following declaration about Health Promotion in 2016. This declaration is intended for governments and stakeholders gathering in Shanghai for the 9th Global Conference on Health Promotion and as a tool for programming and advocacy in the future. We affirm the essential roles played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs); enabling, mediating, and advocating, with a mission of being the conscience of political decision-makers, in using health promotion strategies to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The world has changed since the Ottawa Charter was developed in 1986. Thirty years later, in 2016, we are faced with climate change, the emergence of ecological determinants of health, an increasing focus on social determinants of health, rapid development of technologies, global security issues, impact of austerity budgets on populations in vulnerable situations, global infectious disease epidemics, increasing non-communicable diseases, global migrations, and deepening inequities at global and local levels. We also now recognize the breadth of evidence that can be incorporated, including the teachings of indigenous cultures and traditional knowledge. This variety of world views values the balance of mental, psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and emotional health and to understand that a relationship with the earth and our social environment is essential to achieving health at all levels.

Millennium Development Goals have been replaced by Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as the guide for coordinating global actions. But the SDGs alone have limitations. The SDGs are missing acknowledgement of racism as a limiting factor and the key role that civil society plays in promoting health from the individual to the global levels. Yet, achievement of the SDGs is dependent on CSOs and the leadership role they play within health promotion.

We believe that health promotion has proven to be an effective approach to achieving health and well-being by addressing inequity, empowering urban and rural communities and individuals. Health promotion has helped to break down silos through intersectoral collaboration and is engaging us even more towards a holistic approach. As we look to the future, we need to include the application of new scientific breakthroughs and discoveries in the fields of longevity, epigenetics, and healthy lifestyles.

With all the changes since its development, the Ottawa Charter continues to provide a solid foundation we are building upon. Health promotion continues to galvanize professionals around the world to work together to change policies and practices towards addressing health inequities. Health Promotion does this by addressing complexities through multiple strategies identified in the original Ottawa Charter.

1) Build healthy public policies:This has evolved to whole of government approaches, and governance for health that includes civil society at the national level. We have turned our talents to working on mechanisms and treaties to address the global and international boundary issues we face in migration, climate change, infectious disease epidemics, social and gender inequity, and international trade towards advocating for a global treaty for health. Health promoters use intersectoral collaboration to respond to the complexity of these emerging issues. This would be strengthened by horizontal and vertical policy integration between sectors and all levels of government. CSOs must be included in policy making from local to global levels. Health promoters and CSOs have to work at all political levels from local to global. Healthy Public Policy (1986) to Governance for Health – From Local to Global (2016).

2) Create supportive environments: New thinking about Social Determinants of Health, including gender, aligns with the Ottawa Charter. This thinking includes social, economic, physical and multicultural environments, and the ecological determinants of health. Health promoters are now working to develop policies and advocacy at the global level to understand the effects of colonialization on cultures and ecosystems. This includes attention to the ways to work in multi-cultural settings as a result of migrations and calling for more solidarity, social and ecological justice, and inclusiveness from societies. Supportive Environments (1986) to Multi-cultural and Ecological Environments (2016).

3) Strengthen community action: This critical strategy in health promotion has included a commitment to engaging individuals and communities, both urban and rural, at the local and global levels in decisions that affect their health. Real engagement means sharing knowledge and power. New technologies affect everyone and can be harnessed to enable the grassroots participation of people everywhere in policies and programs that reduce inequities and improve health. Health promoters and CSOs have real talents in fostering asset-based practices, intersectoral collaborations, community development, participatory processes, creating spaces for the voices of CSOs to be heard at all levels and holding governments and the private sector accountable for actions on the SDGs. Community Action (1986) to Civil Society Engagement and Action (2016)

4) Develop personal skills: Over the years, this has included individual health education, health communications, and health literacy. We have recognized that none of these strategies can be successful over the long term without being combined with the other health promotion strategies. People need literacy in civic engagement, social determinants of health and equity. With the evolution of social media, we can connect and engage people to strengthen community and individual literacy and resiliency. Personal Skills (1986) to Community and Individual Resiliency (2016).

5) Reorient health services: In 1986, we said “Reorienting Health Services” and this remains a priority. There is still a need to recognize the importance of public health and health promotion at the primary health care level to create health for all and reduce health inequities in all countries. We also recognize that all human services (e.g. justice, social services, education), public institutions, and the private sector need to change the way they work with each other and the public in recognition of their connection to health. Reorienting Health Services (1986) to a Health and Human Services System (2016).

Charlottetown Call to Action
Health promotion is essential to achieving the SDGs through the following actions:

  1. All levels of government implement intersectoral collaboration and horizontal – vertical policy integration across sectors and jurisdictions.

  2. Governments invest more resources across all sectors for health promotion, civil society and communities to strengthen their capacity for engagement and action.

  3. Civil Society organizations work together to hold governments accountable for action on the SDGs.

  4. Governments, with the support of WHO, create enabling environments for intersectoral collaboration that incorporates indigenous, traditional and local knowledge, and partners with communities and Civil Society Organizations.

  5. A Global Treaty on Health for All be developed by UN member states in collaboration with Civil Society Organizations.

  6. Health promoters use this Declaration as the foundation for their practice.

  7. WHO, working with other UN agencies, focus attention and resources to make sure that effective health promotion strategies are widely known and applied, and are built into WHO work and decision-making; from planning, to resource allocation, to training of health professionals globally, so that these skills are available at both local and national levels in all countries.

  8. WHO and governments at all levels invest in research, evaluation and knowledge exchange, including indigenous and traditional knowledge, about the effectiveness of implementing multi-level, multi-action, and civil society-engaging health promotion strategies towards advancing the SDGs.

 

 

26 Comments

  1. I thank you for your work on this. I do have a few reflections.
    1. I find the concept of Healthy Public Policy to Global Governance for Health a bit confusing. I understand the concept but I think this wording leaves out the engagement of various levels by using the term “Global”.
    2. Supportive Environments to Multi-cultural and Ecological Environments. I learned a lot from people such as Trevor Hancock over the years and I think it is so important to include multi-cultural and Ecological environments but I am very concerned that other determinants of health such as safety and inclusiveness may not be considered. I really identify with supportive environments as a service provider.
    4. Personal Skills to Health and Media Literacy- I am concerned as to this narrow focus. I do not believe that “literacy” equates into personal skills.
    I really like the notion of ” Health and Human Services System. It speaks so well to the importance of people and not just systems and policies.
    I really like the call to Action in regards to the Sustainable Development Goals. I think Action 4 on a Global Treaty on Health may need to be explained.
    Thank you for this opportunity.

    Reply
    • Hello Lori,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
    • Thanks for the opportunity to comment and for all the great work on pulling this together. I agree with the comment above re the change to supportive environments. Although Multi-cultural and Ecological Environments are very important, this new wording is much more limiting in focus than Supportive Environments. I’m thinking of all the aspects of healthy social environments, sense of community, economic environments, built environments and working and learning environments that are not covered by the new terminology. It is great to have some updated thinking on this though.

      Reply
  2. I suggest that economic conditions (the state of the economy) is an explicit, and significant determinant of health in 2016. The push for more jobs and economic prosperity can (and has!) lead to greater harm if left unchecked. Such is the case when industries that are harmful to the natural environment or human health, such as the alcohol industry, are incented to expand.

    Reply
    • Hello Sandy,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  3. I have serious concerns about the proposal for moving from Healthy Public Policy to Global Governance for Health. This may imply that policy decisions are not driven by locally (country specific) relevant issues but that a paternalistic approach of international bodies is what obtains. We must ‘think globally and act locally’ but this proposal may connote something else.

    Reply
    • I completely agree with this comment. The term global does appear to take the emphasis away from local policy creation and implementation.

      Reply
      • Hello Desmalee & Adele,

        Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

        Reply
  4. Thank you for the opportunity to comment on the Declaration and Call to Action. I am glad to see the inclusion of research as a call to action in this document but I suggest a redirection in its focus. I think the focus on “research about the effectiveness of implementing multi-level, multi-action, and civil society-engaging health promotion strategies”, is misdirected as the need for comprehensive approaches to address health issues is a well understood concept. However, I beleive investing resources on research and a having a committment to open data sharing should be considered as key Health Promotion Strategies. Research provides a way to initiate other Health Promotion strategies by identifying and focussing debate on “how to address health issues” rather than debating “if” the health issue really exists. Research and data collection on priority populations or vulnerable communities specifically provides a way to mobilize resources and direct attention to priority populations. A committment to open data sharing will strengthen community action and engage stakeholders in finding solutions to problems in their communities. Increasingly, data is power and open data is a strategy that can empower people to engage at a grass roots level and find solutions that traditional organizations may be unable to accomplish.

    Reply
    • Hello Patrick,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  5. Hi there,
    I am working in the regional public health unit as a Health Promotion & Research Analyst. Glad to see this PEI HP Declaration as and extension and continued efforts to the Ottawa Charter developed 30 years ago.

    As we human being, as both a species and civil society, moves faster and faster along the road of evolution caused by our own choice of activities and migration in a bigger circle beyond our control, the challenges and copying strategies we are having today are quite different from those 30 years ago at practice level.

    What I like about this declaration are:

    1. It emphasizes more the power of people especially in form of groups/congregations, the new tern “Civil Society Organization”. Believe in their wisdom and power to know the best regarding what they need as a whole, what are the key issues at the roots, what are the best solutions, which choices to make at critical evolving bifurcate…that will be good for human being as a whole. In one word, to listen and follow the intuition of the true representative of the human being instead of these or those individual small groups based on their own benefits and greedy needs. As the industrialization of our society gets more and more advanced, many important societal decisions including those relating health promotion are more biased/influenced by the needs of business society and the greedy of the small groups of rich people. This has been also reflected in the decision making at all levels of government, although variables from country to country, region to region. It is the time to give the rights back to those it truly resides in and coming from, the people as a whole.

    2. It declares clearly a holistic view and approach for achieving and maintaining the health. For the first time, it acknowledges clearly the value of the balance of mental, spiritual, psychosocial as well as physical; and understands that a relationship with the earth and our social environment is essential to achieving health at all levels. For me, this is a great step moving forward from an arrogant to humble altitude toward both the valuable healthy living knowledge of human being inherited thousands and thousands years ago through generation after generation of human being; and our living environment. We human being and the Earth are all living things. And they are undividable important elements with a more complex and bigger living system as a whole. A view like this is a really a results of awaking in our group consciousness as a whole, which will be manifested in more smart decisions causing changes at the roots so as to be able to maintain a sustainable development goal.

    What I think it misses are:
    For the changes we are facing, we should mention the aging of the human being, as it is a very important and prominent factor.
    So is mental health. I have working in public health for 10 years and always feel puzzled that, although we have more and more people suffer from mental health issues as at the population level, there isn’t enough efforts made in this area by the public health compared with the other area.

    Reply
    • Hello Sandy,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  6. With the recognized health impacts of violence on all members of society but particularly women and children and indigenous populations the role of violence prevention in promoting health and its ability to actually provide more choices to those who are currently living with violence with few options more emphasis on reducing violence is needed in our declaration. Those living daily with violence face huge inequities in achieving health.

    Reply
    • Hello Myrna,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  7. Hello! I appreciate the opportunity to contribute remotely! I do agree with the former comments above with respect to:
    a) ensuring when we talk about policy development we ensure it captures local policy development, balanced with the global influence
    b) somehow capturing the value of open data; I completely agree with this statement above by Peter Fischer.

    I believe the declaration has one statement in there about recognizing Indigenous cultures and local knowledge. However, I don’t see it reflected strongly enough in the actual calls to action. My own expertise is with multi-cultural and immigrant communities – but I feel very strongly that we need to acknowledge the particular challenges faced by Indigenous communities globally. I propose a) that multicultural environments be changed to “intercultural” … multicultural in Canada tends to connote the multi-cultural policy that doesn’t reflect the unique circumstances of Indigenous communities b) that somehow the concept of looking not only at global influences but colonizing influences be incorporated. I am not an expert on this area – but perhaps if you engage someone from the NCCAH they could provide some thought. I found this document to be very helpful in how we we can incorporate this perspective. http://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/145/2015_06_04_RPT_CoreCompentenciesHealth_Hunt_EN_Web.pdf

    Reply
    • Hello Roxanne,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  8. Many thanks for this call for ‘civil society,’contribution to the PEI Health Promotion Declaration. Public support to change policies and practices toward eliminating health inequities at all policy levels is essential to ensure better health outcomes in the future.. This is not only a question of galvanising the ‘professionals’ it is a matter of social mobilisation, infusing individuals and the public in general to engage in health promotion. This means not only expecting results from governments and national health systems but ensuring that health and the well being of others is a central factor to an individual’s personal life and to that of their communities.

    This is already being achieved globally with many valuable projects particularly those sponsored and directed by non governmental service organisations. This success calls for greater publicity. It demands more resources to provide research and practical ‘HOW’ technical skills to promote replication of successful outcomes.

    Health Promotors focussing on multinational agreements should be aware of the ease with which global treaties, however valuable their contents, can be torn up. Greater health dividends are likely to be found from attention to local policy involvement

    Reply
    • Hello Sonia,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  9. Thank you for this opportunity to comment and for all the thought that has gone into Declaration. A few considerations, many in line with earlier comments:
    1. The inclusion of Global Governance for Health is a critical advance in the Declaration. But as others have noted, what happens locally still matters a great deal as well. Perhaps this strategy might be Health in All Policies and Global Governance for Health, or Local, National, and Global Governance for Health.
    2. The inclusion of ecological and cultural determinants of health is another important addition, but I too worry this might appear to exclude many other determinants of health. Might this be expanded to ensure that political, social, and economic determinants are included as well?
    3. The centrality of civil society engagement throughout the Declaration, in its own strategy and in the call to action, is excellent. Despite the clear spirit and intent behind the Civil Society Engagement strategy, though, this might seem inadvertently to neglect the importance of directly engaging communities themselves. For grassroots organizations or civil society organizations comprised of community members (such as organizations of people with disabilities), community members and CSOs might be one and the same. Often, though, civil society organizations do not include members of the communities they represent and are advocating for. Perhaps the strategy of Civil Society Engagement could be expanded to Civil Society and Community engagement, and in the call to action, communities similarly included alongside CSOs.
    4. The inclusion of the Global Treaty on Health is a very important part of the call to action. Such a treaty has been proposed, a Framework Convention on Global Health, which would be based in human rights and aimed at national and global health equity, helping to establish the type of equitable, participatory, accountable national and global governance for health that would support the strategies in this Declaration. In his report to the High-Level Meeting on Ending AIDS earlier this year, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon included this: “I further encourage the international community to consider and recognize the value of a comprehensive framework convention on global health.” It is good to see the Declaration engaging with this call to action. I encourage folks to have a look at this commentary, which was just published on the proposal: http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langlo/PIIS2214-109X(16)30219-4.pdf

    Reply
    • Hello Eric,

      Thank you for your thoughts and feedback. The conversation surrounding the creation of the PEI Declaration and the important role of health promotion in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals is truly inspiring. The Writing Room team is working to incorporate your feedback as well as the feedback of others. We invite you to see how you have helped shape the PEI Declaration by consulting version one, which has now been posted above.

      Reply
  10. Hello, Thank you for all of your work on the Declaration. This is a big undertaking to update the Ottawa Charter. I have a coupme of questions and comments.

    1. I am wondering if there will also be an opportunity for broader stakeholder engagement as so many professionals who were not able to make this Forum would also appreciate the chance to provide feedback?

    2. In addition, many of us are reflective thinkers and this is a really quick turn around and we would need more time to process and understand the implications of the proposed changes?

    3. I think it would be really important to have definitions with all of the new title of strategies (e.g. Health in All Policies) so that their meaning is very clear to anyone who did not attend this Forum.

    4. I also want to respond to some of the comments re: ensuring the determinants of health are all included in the strategies (key areas). I am not sure this is needed, but perhaps it is the way we have used the Ottawa Charter’s 5 strategies within the context of the Population Health Promotion Model (Hamilton and Bhakti). The implementation of your programs/projects/initiatives is the way that you address the determinants of health using up to date evidence (evidence includes surveillance data, best practices, research, etc). Therefore, we need to make sure the Declaration is applicable to as many groups as possible who work in the area of health promotion.

    Thank you!

    Reply
  11. I would concur with the panel member who wanted a statement against austerity.

    Reply
  12. It is challenging to craft global statements that are both comprehensive and accessible. Wishing you success in your collective efforts.
    Couple of observations:
    a) While recognizing this is a document building on previous declarations and is designed to be contributed to a larger forum for further deliberation and expansion, it could benefit from a summary of the concepts of health promotion that it is building upon, e.g. illness prevention, health protection,healthy public policy, citizen and community engagement etc.
    b)Does the current draft Declaration adequately intersect with UN Global health and quality of life indicators? Do gaps exist in either framework?
    c)Population health circumstances and inequities differ drastically between and among local and global communities. Would the Declaration benefit from acknowledging that each population has specific, relative and in many cases urgent challenges. Using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as an assessment tool reveals the range from basic necessities of safe food, water and shelter, access to resources for illness prevention and to resources to mobilize civil society to enable a healthy public policy lens.
    d)I presume the reference early in the current draft to global threats includes 65.3 million people currently displaced mostly by wars and some by catastrophic climate events and others afflicted by outbreaks of new pandemics. Would the Declaration benefit from fuller mention of disparate circumstances for the extremely vulnerable and their challenges for health, safety and security.
    d)Accessibility to new technologies and remedies. If some diseases and afflictions can be eliminated by genetic engineering, what are the challenges to populations not having equitable access?
    e)Knowledge Translation and Transfer. Research and evaluation are of course critical and it is great to see mention in the Declaration. There is much research but resource allocation is essential for quality analyses and syntheses and the hurdle common everywhere is communication of information, timely, collaboratively and usable by people who need to know.

    Reply
  13. About the distribution of ressources for health promotion:
    I teach in health communication and I do critical research on pharmaceutical marketing. One of the strategies that are taught in public relations is the use of astroturfing, a practice through which private enterprises undertake initiatives that look like as if they originated from grassroots groups. The pharmaceutical industry is known to make a great use of this strategy through the creation of organizations that are supposedly focusing on health promotion and education, but whose actual goal is to promote the agenda of the industry, thus opening the door to disease mongering, overmedication, medicalization of social problems, etc. It is a shame to see public funds that were once dedicated to public health promotion being redistributed for the benefit of multinational interests. Health promotion should not be confused with health industry promotion.

    Reply
  14. Thank you for your work with the PEI Declaration, and thank you for the opportunity to contribute feedback.
    One common misinterpretation of the 1986 Ottawa Charter was the ‘Developing Personal Skills’ action area. This action area was not originally intended to refer to individual health literacy in the sense that it would prompt individual health behaviour change, but rather refers to building organizing and leadership skills in individuals so that those people could bring together their fellow community members to act on issue(s) of concern. Note that it was conceptually joined to the “Strengthening Community Action” in the original Charter graphic. I wonder if the declaration writing committee would consider acknowledging the political nature of health issues, and including this type of grassroots political organizing in the definition of the Developing Personal Skills. As well, while there are 5 action areas, I wonder if the committee would consider more strongly connecting “Developing Personal Skills” with “Strengthening Community Action” – perhaps by labeling them 4a and 4b for example – as they were discussed and presented in the original graphic.

    Reply
  15. General Comment: You’ve moved away from the more common and simple language of the original to more complex phrases and jargon – which makes understanding the strategies, concepts and ideas much more difficult.
    Specific Comments:
    1) Build healthy public policy vs Governance for health – from local to global: the original is much more straightforward, practical and understandable than the suggested revision. Perhaps adding something like “using a common determinants-based lens for all levels of government policy decisions” in the explanation of what ‘building healthy public policy’ means would meet your needs for a revision?
    2) Create Supportive Environments vs Create Multi-cultural & Ecological Environments: The suggested revision is a HUGE step backwards. Create Supportive Environments already covers multi-cultural and ecological area AND SO MUCH MORE! It covers economic, social, emotional, and other areas of the determinants of health (SDOH and the rest). It speaks to the life settings (homes, schools, workplaces, neighbourhoods, etc.) where pop health promotion action is focused throughout the life course.
    3) Strengthen Community Action vs Strengthen Civil Society Engagement and Action: Talk about jargon…perhaps a change to “Strengthen Capacity for Action” and then discuss both community and individual capacity would work better?
    4) Develop Personal Skills vs “Develop Community and Individual Resiliency”: Perhaps a change to “Build Resiliency” would be more suitable (and then in the description speak about developing both community and individual resilience).
    5) Reorient Health Services to “Reorienting Health and Human Services System”: I’ve never been satisfied with ‘reorient health services’ because that’s just a part of the reorientation required. I often use ‘reorient the community’ and then when describing it I include health services and human services…not sure if that is the best but I think it’s much better than the suggested revision because the suggested revision doesn’t speak to reorienting the community (which I think is essential for reorienting the other areas).

    Reply

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